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中华人民共和国专利法(修正)(附英文)

发布部门:全国人民代表大会 发布文号:
分类导航: 所属类别:全国人大法律
发布日期:1984-03-12 关键字:
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(1984年3月12日第六届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第四次会议通过 根据1992年9月4日第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十七次会议《关于修改<中华人民共和国专利法>的决定》修正) 目 录 第一章 总 则 第二章 授予专利权的条件 第三章 专利的申请 第四章 专利申请的审查和批准 第五章 专利权的期限、终止和无效 第六章 专利实施的强制许可 第七章 专利权的保护 第八章 附 则 第一章 总 则 第一条 为了保护发明创造专利权,鼓励发明创造,有利于发明创造的推广应用,促进科学技术的发展,适应社会主义现代化建设的需要,特制定本法。 第二条 本法所称的发明创造是指发明、实用新型和外观设计。 第三条 中华人民共和国专利局受理和审查专利申请,对符合本法规定的发明创造授予专利权。 第四条 申请专利的发明创造涉及国家安全或者重大利益需要保密的,按照国家有关规定办理。 第五条 对违反国家法律、社会公德或者妨害公共利益的发明创造,不授予专利权。 第六条 执行本单位的任务或者主要是利用本单位的物质条件所完成的职务发明创造,申请专利的权利属于该单位;非职务发明创造,申请专利的权利属于发明人或者设计人。申请被批准后,全民所有制单位申请的,专利权归该单位持有;集体所有制单位或者个人申请的,专利权归该 单位或者个人所有。 在中国境内的外资企业和中外合资经营企业的工作人员完成的职务发明创造,申请专利的权利属于该企业;非职务发明创造,申请专利的权利属于发明人或者设计人。申请被批准后,专利权归申请的企业或者个人所有。 专利权的所有人和持有人统称专利权人。 第七条 对发明人或者设计人的非职务发明创造专利申请,任何单位或者个人不得压制。 第八条 两个以上单位协作或者一个单位接受其他单位委托的研究、设计任务所完成的发明创造,除另有协议的以外,申请专利的权利属于完成或者共同完成的单位;申请被批准后,专利权归申请的单位所有或者持有。 第九条 两个以上的申请人分别就同样的发明创造申请专利的,专利权授予最先申请的人。 第十条 专利申请权和专利权可以转让。 全民所有制单位转让专利申请权或者专利权的,必须经上级主管机关批准。 中国单位或者个人向外国人转让专利申请权或者专利权的,必须经国务院有关主管部门批准。 转让专利申请权或者专利权的,当事人必须订立书面合同,经专利局登记和公告后生效。 第十一条 发明和实用新型专利权被授予后,除法律另有规定的以外,任何单位或者个人未经专利权人许可,不得为生产经营目的制造、使用、销售其专利产品,或者使用其专利方法以及使用、销售依照该专利方法直接获得的产品。 外观设计专利权被授予后,任何单位或者个人未经专利权人许可,不得为生产经营目的制造、销售其外观设计专利产品。 专利权被授予后,除法律另有规定的以外,专利权人有权阻止他人未经专利权人许可,为上两款所述用途进口其专利产品或者进口依照其专利方法直接获得的产品。 第十二条 任何单位或者个人实施他人专利的,除本法第十四条规定的以外,都必须与专利权人订立书面实施许可合同,向专利权人支付专利使用费。被许可人无权允许合同规定以外的任何单位或者个人实施该专利。 第十三条 发明专利申请公布后,申请人可以要求实施其发明的单位或者个人支付适当的费用。 第十四条 国务院有关主管部门和省、自治区、直辖市人民政府根据国家计划,有权决定本系统内或者所管辖的全民所有制单位持有的重要发明创造专利允许指定的单位实施,由实施单位按照国家规定向持有专利权的单位支付使用费。 中国集体所有制单位和个人的专利,对国家利益或者公共利益具有重大意义,需要推广应用的,由国务院有关主管部门报国务院批准后,参照上款规定办理。 第十五条 专利权人有权在其专利产品或者该产品的包装上标明专利标记和专利号。 第十六条 专利权的所有单位或者持有单位应当对职务发明创造的发明人或者设计人给予奖励;发明创造专利实施后,根据其推广应用的范围和取得的经济效益,对发明人或者设计人给予奖励。 第十七条 发明人或者设计人有在专利文件中写明自己是发明人或者设计人的权利。 第十八条 在中国没有经常居所或者营业所的外国人、外国企业或者外国其他组织在中国申请专利的,依照其所属国同中国签订的协议或者共同参加的国际条约,或者依照互惠原则,根据本法办理。 第十九条 在中国没有经常居所或者营业所的外国人、外国企业或者外国其他组织在中国申请专利和办理其他专利事务的,应当委托中华人民共和国国务院指定的专利代理机构办理。 中国单位或者个人在国内申请专利和办理其他专利事务的,可以委托专利代理机构办理。 第二十条 中国单位或者个人将其在国内完成的发明创造向外国申请专利的,应当首先向专利局申请专利,并经国务院有关主管部门同意后,委托国务院指定的专利代理机构办理。 第二十一条 在专利申请公布或者公告前,专利局工作人员及有关人员对其内容负有保密责任。 第二章 授予专利权的条件 第二十二条 授予专利权的发明和实用新型,应当具备新颖性、创造性和实用性。 新颖性,是指在申请日以前没有同样的发明或者实用新型在国内外出版物上公开发表过、在国内公开使用过或者以其他方式为公众所知,也没有同样的发明或者实用新型由他人向专利局提出过申请并且记载在申请日以后公布的专利申请文件中。 创造性,是指同申请日以前已有的技术相比,该发明有突出的实质性特点和显著的进步,该实用新型有实质性特点和进步。 实用性,是指该发明或者实用新型能够制造或者使用,并且能够产生积极效果。 第二十三条 授予专利权的外观设计,应当同申请日以前在国内外出版物上公开发表过或者国内公开使用过的外观设计不相同或者不相近似。 第二十四条 申请专利的发明创造在申请日以前六个月内,有下列情形之一的,不丧失新颖性: 一、在中国政府主办或者承认的国际展览会上首次展出的; 二、在规定的学术会议或者技术会议上首次发表的; 三、他人未经申请人同意而泄露其内容的。 第二十五条 对下列各项,不授予专利权: 一、科学发现; 二、智力活动的规则和方法; 三、疾病的诊断和治疗方法; 四、动物和植物品种; 五、用原子核变换方法获得的物质。 对上款第四项所列产品的生产方法,可以依照本法规定授予专利权。 第三章 专利的申请 第二十六条 申请发明或者实用新型专利的,应当提交请求书、说明书及其摘要和权利要求书等文件。 请求书应当写明发明或者实用新型的名称,发明人或者设计人的姓名,申请人姓名或者名称、地址,以及其他事项。 说明书应当对发明或者实用新型作出清二、完整的说明,以所属技术领域的技术人员能够实现为准;必要的时候,应当有附图。摘要应当简要说明发明或者实用新型的技术要点。 权利要求书应当以说明书为依据,说明要求专利保护的范围。 第二十七条 申请外观设计专利的,应当提交请求书以及该外观设计的图片或者照片等文件,并且应当写明使用该外观设计的产品及其所属的类别。 第二十八条 专利局收到专利申请文件之日为申请日。如果申请文件是邮寄的,以寄出的邮戳日为申请日。 第二十九条 申请人自发明或者实用新型在外国第一次提出专利申请之日起十二个月内,或者自外观设计在外国第一次提出专利申请之日起六个月内,又在中国就相同主题提出专利申请的,依照该外国同中国签订的协议或者共同参加的国际条约,或者依照相互承认优先权的原则,可以 享有优先权。 申请人自发明或者实用新型在中国第一次提出专利申请之日起十二个月内,又向专利局就相同主题提出专利申请的,可以享有优先权。 第三十条 申请人要求优先权的,应当在申请的时候提出书面声明,并且在三个月内提交第一次提出的专利申请文件的副本;未提出书面声明或者逾期未提交专利申请文件副本的,视为未要求优先权。 第三十一条 一>发明或者实用新型专利申请应当限于一项发明或者实用新型。属于一个总的发明构思的两项以上的发明或者实用新型,可以作为一>申请提出。 一>外观设计专利申请应当限于一种产品所使用的一项外观设计。用于同一类别并且成套出售或者使用的产品的两项以上的外观设计,可以作为一>申请提出。 第三十二条 申请人可以在被授予专利权之前随时撤回其专利申请。 第三十三条 申请人可以对其专利申请文件进行修改,但是,对发明和实用新型专利申请文件的修改不得超出原说明书和权利要求书记载的范围,对外观设计专利申请文件的修改不得超出原图片或者照片表示的范围。 第四章 专利申请的审查和批准 第三十四条 专利局收到发明专利申请后,经初步审查认为符合本法要求的,自申请日起满十八个月,即行公布。专利局可以根据申请人的请求早日公布其申请。 第三十五条 发明专利申请自申请日起三年内,专利局可以根据申请人随时提出的请求,对其申请进行实质审查;申请人无正当理由逾期不请求实质审查的,该申请即被视为撤回。 专利局认为必要的时候,可以自行对发明专利申请进行实质审查。 第三十六条 发明专利的申请人请求实质审查的时候,应当提交在申请日前与其发明有关的参考资料。 发明专利已经在外国提出过申请的,申请人请求实质审查的时候,应当提交该国为审查其申请进行检索的资料或者审查结果的资料;无正当理由不提交的,该申请即被视为撤回。 第三十七条 专利局对发明专利申请进行实质审查后,认为不符合本法规定的,应当通知申请人,要求其在指定的期限内陈述意见,或者对其申请进行修改;无正当理由逾期不答复的,该申请即被视为撤回。 第三十八条 发明专利申请经申请人陈述意见或者进行修改后,专利局仍然认为不符合本法规定的,应当予以驳回。 第三十九条 发明专利申请经实质审查没有发现驳回理由的,专利局应当作出授予发明专利权的决定,发给发明专利证书,并予以登记和公告。 第四十条 实用新型和外观设计专利申请经初步审查没有发现驳回理由的,专利局应当作出授予实用新型专利权或者外观设计专利权的决定,发给相应的专利证书,并予以登记和公告。 第四十一条 自专利局公告授予专利权之日起六个月内,任何单位或者个人认为该专利权的授予不符合本法有关规定的,都可以请求专利局撤销该专利权。 第四十二条 专利局对撤销专利权的请求进行审查,作出撤销或者维持专利权的决定,并通知请求人和专利权人。撤销专利权的决定,由专利局登记和公告。 第四十三条 专利局设立专利复审委员会。对专利局驳回申请的决定不服的,或者对专利局撤销或者维持专利权的决定不服的,可以自收到通知之日起三个月内,向专利复审委员会请求复审。专利复审委员会复审后,作出决定,并通知专利申请人、专利权人或者撤销专利权的请求人。 发明专利的申请人、发明专利权人或者撤销发明专利权的请求人对专利复审委员会的复审决定不服的,可以自收到通知之日起三个月内向人民法院起诉。 专利复审委员会对申请人、专利权人或者撤销专利权的请求人关于实用新型和外观设计的复审请求所作出的决定为终局决定。 第四十四条 被撤销的专利权视为自始即不存在。 第五章 专利权的期限、终止和无效 第四十五条 发明专利权的期限为二十年,实用新型专利权和外观设计专利权的期限为十年,均自申请日起计算. 第四十六条 专利权人应当自被授予专利权的当年开始缴纳年费。 第四十七条 有下列情形之一的,专利权在期限届满前终止: 一、没有按照规定缴纳年费的; 二、专利权人以书面声明放弃其专利权的。 专利权的终止,由专利局登记和公告。 第四十八条 自专利局公告授予专利权之日起满六个月后,任何单位或者个人认为该专利权的授予不符合本法有关规定的,都可以请求专利复审委员会宣告该专利权无效。 第四十九条 专利复审委员会对宣告专利权无效的请求进行审查,作出决定,并通知请求人和专利权人。宣告专利权无效的决定,由专利局登记和公告。 对专利复审委员会宣告发明专利权无效或者维持发明专利权的决定不服的,可以在收到通知之日起三个月内向人民法院起诉。 专利复审委员会对宣告实用新型和外观设计专利权无效的请求所作出的决定为终局决定。 第五十条 宣告无效的专利权视为自始即不存在。 宣告专利权无效的决定,对在宣告专利权无效前人民法院作出并已执行的专利侵权的判决、裁定,专利管理机关作出并已执行的专利侵权处理决定,以及已经履行的专利实施许可合同和专利权转让合同,不具有追溯力。但是因专利权人的恶意给他人造成的损失,应当给予赔偿。 如果依照上款规定,专利权人或者专利权转让人不向被许可实施专利人或者专利权受让人返还专利使用费或者专利权转让费,明显违反公平原则,专利权人或者专利权转让人应当向被许可实施专利人或者专利权受让人返还全部或者部分专利使用费或者专利权转让费。 本条第二款、第三款的规定适用于被撤捎的专利权。 第六章 专利实施的强制许可 第五十一条 具备实施条件的单位以合理的条件请求发明或者实用新型专利权人许可实施其专利,而未能在合理长的时间内获得这种许可时,专利局根据该单位的申请,可以给予实施该发明专利或者实用新型专利的强制许可。 第五十二条 在国家出现紧急状态或者非常情况时,或者为了公共利益的目的,专利局可以给予实施发明专利或者实用新型专利的强制许可。 第五十三条 一项取得专利权的发明或者实用新型比前已经取得专利权的发明或者实用新型在技术上先进,其实施又有赖于前一发明或者实用新型的实施的,专利局根据后一专利权人的申请,可以给予实施前一发明或者实用新型的强制许可。 在依照上款规定给予实施强制许可的情形下,专利局根据前一专利权人的申请,也可以给予实施后一发明或者实用新型的强制许可。 第五十四条 依照本法规定申请实施强制许可的单位或者个人,应当提出未能以合理条件与专利权人签订实施许可合同的证明。 第五十五条 专利局作出的给予实施强制许可的决定,应当予以登记和公告。 第五十六条 取得实施强制许可的单位或者个人不享有独占的实施权,并且无权允许他人实施。 第五十七条 取得实施强制许可的单位或者个人应当付给专利权人合理的使用费,其数额由双方商定;双方不能达成协议的,由专利局裁决。 第五十八条 专利权人对专利局关于实施强制许可的决定或者关于实施强制许可的使用费的裁决不服的,可以在收到通知之日起三个月内向人民法院起诉。 第七章 专利权的保护 第五十九条 发明或者实用新型专利权的保护范围以其权利要求的内容为准,说明书及附图可以用于解释权利要求。 外观设计专利权的保护范围以表示在图片或者照片中的该外观设计专利产品为准。 第六十条 对未经专利权人许可,实施其专利的侵权行为,专利权人或者利害关系人可以请求专利管理机关进行处理,也可以直接向人民法院起诉。专利管理机关处理的时候,有权责令侵权人停止侵权行为,并赔偿损失;当事人不服的,可以在收到通知之日起三个月内向人民法院起诉 ;期满不起诉又不履行的,专利管理机关可以请求人民法院强制执行。 在发生侵权纠纷的时候,如果发明专利是一项新产品的制造方法,制造同样产品的单位或者个人应当提供其产品制造方法的证明。 第六十一条 侵犯专利权的诉讼时效为二年,自专利权人或者利害关系人得知或者应当得知侵权行为之日起计算。 第六十二条 有下列情形之一的,不视为侵犯专利权: 一、专利权人制造或者经专利权人许可制造的专利产品售出后,使用或者销售该产品的; 二、使用或者销售不知道是未经专利权人许可而制造并售出的专利产品的; 三、在专利申请日前已经制造相同产品、使用相同方法或者已经作好制造、使用的必要准备,并且仅在原有范围内继续制造、使用的; 四、临时通过中国领土、领水、领空的外国运输工具,依照其所属国同中国签订的协议或者共同参加的国际条约,或者依照互惠原则,为运输工具自身需要而在其装置和设备中使用有关专利的; 五、专为科学研究和实验而使用有关专利的。 第六十三条 假冒他人专利的,依照本法第六十条的规定处理;情节严重的,对直接责任人员比照刑法第一百二十七条的规定追究刑事责任。 将非专利产品冒充专利产品的或者将非专利方法冒充专利方法的,由专利管理机关责令停止冒充行为,公开更正,并处以罚款。 第六十四条 违反本法第二十条规定,擅自向外国申请专利,泄露国家重要机密的,由所在单位或者上级主管机关给予行政处分;情节严重的,依法追究刑事责任。 第六十五条 侵夺发明人或者设计人的非职务发明创造专利申请权和本法规定的其他权益的,由所在单位或者上级主管机关给予行政处分。 第六十六条 专利局工作人员及有关国家工作人员徇私舞弊的,由专利局或者有关主管机关给予行政处分;情节严重的,比照刑法第一百八十八条的规定追究刑事责任。 第八章 附 则 第六十七条 向专利局申请专利和办理其他手续,应当按照规定缴纳费用。 第六十八条 本法实施细则由专利局制订,报国务院批准后施行。 第六十九条 本法自1985年4月1日起施行。 附件:全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于修改《中华人民共和国专利法》的决定 第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十七次会议审议了国务院关于《中华人民共和国专利法修正案(草案)》的议案,决定对《中华人民共和国专利法》作如下修改: 一、第十一条第一款修改为:“发明和实用新型专利权被授予后,除法律另有规定的以外,任何单位或者个人未经专利权人许可,不得为生产经营目的制造、使用、销售其专利产品,或者使用其专利方法以及使用、销售依照该专利方法直接获得的产品。” 第十一条第二款修改为:“外观设计专利权被授予后,任何单位或者个人未经专利权人许可,不得为生产经营目的制造、销售其外观设计专利产品。” 第十一条增加一款,作为第三款:“专利权被授予后,除法律另有规定的以外,专利权人有权阻止他人未经专利权人许可,为上两款所述用途进口其专利产品或者进口依照其专利方法直接获得的产品。” 二、第二十五条第一款修改为:“对下列各项,不授予专利权: 一、科学发现; 二、智力活动的规则和方法; 三、疾病的诊断和治疗方法; 四、动物和植物品种; 五、用原子核变换方法获得的物质。” 第二十五条第二款修改为:“对上款第四项所列产品的生产方法,可以依照本法规定授予专利权。” 三、第二十九条第一款修改为:“申请人自发明或者实用新型在外国第一次提出专利申请之日起十二个月内,或者自外观设计在外国第一次提出专利申请之日起六个月内,又在中国就相同主题提出专利申请的,依照该外国同中国签订的协议或者共同参加的国际条约,或者依照相互承认 优先权的原则,可以享有优先权。” 第二十九条第二款修改为:“申请人自发明或者实用新型在中国第一次提出专利申请之日起十二个月内,又向专利局就相同主题提出专利申请的,可以享有优先权。” 四、第三十条修改为:“申请人要求优先权的,应当在申请的时候提出书面声明,并且在三个月内提交第一次提出的专利申请文件的副本;未提出书面声明或者逾期未提交专利申请文件副本的,视为未要求优先权。” 五、第三十三条修改为:“申请人可以对其专利申请文件进行修改,但是,对发明和实用新型专利申请文件的修改不得超出原说明书和权利要求书记载的范围,对外观设计专利申请文件的修改不得超出原图片或者照片表示的范围。” 六、第三十四条修改为:“专利局收到发明专利申请后,经初步审查认为符合本法要求的,自申请日起满十八个月,即行公布。专利局可以根据申请人的请求早日公布其申请。” 七、第三十九条修改为:“发明专利申请经实质审查没有发现驳回理由的,专利局应当作出授予发明专利权的决定,发给发明专利证书,并予以登记和公告。” 八、第四十条修改为:“实用新型和外观设计专利申请经初步审查没有发现驳回理由的,专利局应当作出授予实用新型专利权或者外观设计专利权的决定,发给相应的专利证书,并予以登记和公告。” 九、第四十一条修改为:“自专利局公告授予专利权之日起六个月内,任何单位或者个人认为该专利权的授予不符合本法有关规定的,都可以请求专利局撤销该专利权。” 十、第四十二条修改为:“专利局对撤销专利权的请求进行审查,作出撤销或者维持专利权的决定,并通知请求人和专利权人。撤销专利权的决定,由专利局登记和公告。” 十一、第四十三条第一款修改为:“专利局设立专利复审委员会。对专利局驳回申请的决定不服的,或者对专利局撤销或者维持专利权的决定不服的,可以自收到通知之日起三个月内,向专利复审委员会请求复审。专利复审委员会复审后,作出决定,并通知专利申请人、专利权人或者 撤销专利权的请求人。” 第四十三条第二款修改为:“发明专利的申请人、发明专利权人或者撤销发明专利权的请求人对专利复审委员会的复审决定不服的,可以自收到通知之日起三个月内向人民法院起诉。” 第四十三条第三款修改为:“专利复审委员会对申请人、专利权人或者撤销专利权的请求人关于实用新型和外观设计的复审请求所作出的决定为终局决定。” 十二、第四十四条修改为:“被撤销的专利权视为自始即不存在。” 十三、第四十五条修改为:“发明专利权的期限为二十年,实用新型专利权和外观设计专利权的期限为十年,均自申请日起计算。” 十四、第四十八条修改为:“自专利局公告授予专利权之日起满六个月后,任何单位或者个人认为该专利权的授予不符合本法有关规定的,都可以请求专利复审委员会宣告该专利权无效。” 十五、第五十条修改为:“宣告无效的专利权视为自始即不存在。 宣告专利权无效的决定,对在宣告专利权无效前人民法院作出并已执行的专利侵权的判决、裁定,专利管理机关作出并已执行的专利侵权处理决定,以及已经履行的专利实施许可合同和专利权转让合同,不具有追溯力。但是因专利权人的恶意给他人造成的损失,应当给予赔偿。 如果依照上款规定,专利权人或者专利权转让人不向被许可实施专利人或者专利权受让人返还专利使用费或者专利权转让费,明显违反公平原则,专利权人或者专利权转让人应当向被许可实施专利人或者专利权受让人返还全部或者部分专利使用费或者专利权转让费。 本条第二款、第三款的规定适用于被撤销的专利权。” 十六、第五十一条修改为:“具备实施条件的单位以合理的条件请求发明或者实用新型专利权人许可实施其专利,而未能在合理长的时间内获得这种许可时,专利局根据该单位的申请,可以给予实施该发明专利或者实用新型专利的强制许可。” 十七、第五十二条修改为:“在国家出现紧急状态或者非常情况时,或者为了公共利益的目的,专利局可以给予实施发明专利或者实用新型专利的强制许可。” 十八、第六十条第二款修改为:“在发生侵权纠纷的时候,如果发明专利是一项新产品的制造方法,制造同样产品的单位或者个人应当提供其产品制造方法的证明。” 十九、第六十三条增加一款,作为第二款:“将非专利产品冒充专利产品的或者将非专利方法冒充专利方法的,由专利管理机关责令停止冒充行为,公开更正,并处以罚款。” 本决定自1993年1月1日起施行。本决定施行前提出的专利申请和根据该申请授予的专利权,适用修改以前的专利法的规定。但是,专利申请在本决定施行前尚未依照修改以前的专利法第三十九条、第四十条的规定公告的,该专利申请的批准和专利权的撤销、宣告无效的程序适用 修改后的专利法第三十九条至第四十四条和第四十八条的规定。 《中华人民共和国专利法》根据本决定作相应的修正,重新公布。 PATENT LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 【注】 (Adopted at the 4th Session of the Standing Committee of the SixthNational People's Congress on March 12, 1984 Amended by the DecisionRegarding the Revision of the Patent Law of the People's Republic ofChina, adopted at the 27th Session of the Standing Committee of theSeventh National People's Congress on September 4, 1992) Important Notice: (注意事项) 当发生歧意时, 应以法律法规颁布单位发布的中文原文为准. In case of discrepancy, the original version in Chinese shall prevail. Whole Document (法规) PATENT LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (Adopted at the 4th Session of the Standing Committee of the Sixth National People's Congress on March 12, 1984 Amended by the Decision Regarding the Revision of the Patent Law of the People's Republic of China, adopted at the 27th Session of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People's Congress on September 4, 1992) (Translated by the Patent Office of the People's Republic of China. In case of discrepancy, the original version in Chinese shall prevail.) TABLE OF CONTENTS [*1] Chapter I General Provisions Article 1 Purpose of the Law 2 Subject Matter of Patents: Inventions-Creations (Inventions and Utility Models; Designs) 3 Tasks of the Patent Office 4 Subject Matters to be Kept Secret 5 Subject Matter Contrary to Public Order 6 Right to Apply for Patent; Ownership of Patent Right 7 Prohibition of Preventing Filing Application for Non Service Inventions- Creations 8 Inventions-Creations Made Jointly or on Commission 9 First-to-File Rule 10 Assignment of Right to Apply for Patent or of Patent Right 11 Rights Conferred by Patent 12 Patent License Contract 13 Inventions: Exploitation after Publication of Application 14 Planned Exploitation of Certain Patents Owned by Chinese Entities or Individuals 15 Marking of Patents 16 Reward of Inventors or Creators of Service Inventions-Creations 17 Naming of Inventor or Creator in Patent 18 Foreigners Entitled to File Patent Applications 19 Representation by Chinese Agency 20 Filing of Applications Abroad by Chinese 21 Secrecy of Patent Application Chapter II Requirements for Grant of Patent Right 22 Inventions and Utility Models: Substantive Requirements of Patentability 23 Designs: Substantive Requirements of Patentability 24 Disclosures Not Causing Loss of Novelty 25 Subject Matters Excluded from Patentability Chapter III Application for Patent 26 Inventions and Utility Models: Documents Required for Filing Patent Application 27 Designs: Documents Required for Filing Patent Application 28 Filing Date 29 Right of Priority 30 Claiming of Right of Priority 31 Unity of Subject Matter 32 Withdrawal of Application 33 Amendment of Application Chapter IV Examination and Approval of Application for Patent 34 Inventions: Publication of Application 35 Inventions: Initiative for Examination as to Substance 36 Inventions: Information by Applicant for Examination as to Substance 37 Inventions: Invitation to Amend or Make Observations 38 Inventions: Rejection of Application after Examination as to Substance 39 Inventions: Grant of Patent Right after Examination as to Substance 40 Utility Model and Designs: Grant of Patent Right after Preliminary Examination 41 Request for Revocation 42 Decision on Request for Revocation 43 Reexamination and, for Inventions, Court Proceedings 44 Effect of Revocation Chapter V Duration, Cessation and Invalidation of Patent Right 45 Duration 46 Annual Fees 47 Cessation of Patent Right 48 Request for Invalidation 49 Decision on Request for Invalidation 50 Effect of Invalidation Chapter VI Compulsory License for Exploitation of Patent 51 Inventions and Utility Models: Compulsory Licenses in Case of Failure to Obtain Authorization from Patentee 52 Inventions and Utility Models: Compulsory Licenses in Case of Use for Public Interest 53 Inventions and Utility Models: Compulsory Licenses in Case of Dependent Patents 54 Inventions and Utility Models: Proof Required from Requestor of Compulsory License 55 Inventions and Utility Models: Registration and Announcement of Compulsory License 56 Inventions and Utility Models: Limitation of Rights of Compulsory Licensee 57 Inventions and Utility Models: Exploitation Fee to be Paid by Compulsory Licensee 58 Inventions and Utility Models: Court Proceedings by Patentee Concerning Compulsory License Chapter VII Protection of Patent Right 59 Determination of Extent of Protection 60 Definition of Infringement and Remedies; Inventions: Proof in Case of Process of Patents 61 Prescription for Instituting Legal Proceedings for Infringements 62 Acts not Constituting Infringement 63 Remedies and Penalties for Passing Off 64 Sanctions for Not Respecting Provision of Article 20 65 Sanctions for Usurpation of Rights of Inventor or Creator 66 Sanctions Against Offending Officials Chapter VIII Supplementary Provisions 67 Fees 68 Implementing Regulations 69 Date of Entry Into Force of the Law Chapter I GENERAL PROVISIONS Article 1. This Law is enacted to protect patent rights for inventions-creations, to encourage inventions-creations, to foster the spreading and application of inventions-creations, and to promote the development of science and technology, for meeting the needs of the construction of socialist modernization. Article 2. In this Law, "inventions-creations" mean inventions, utility models and designs. Article 3. The Patent Office of the People's Republic of China receives and examines patent applications and grants patent rights for inventions-creations that conform with the provisions of this Law. Article 4. Where the invention-creation for which a patent is applied for relates to the security or other vital interests of the State and is required to be kept secret, the application shall be treated in accordance with the relevant prescriptions of the State. Article 5. No patent right shall be granted for any invention-creation that is contrary to the laws of the State or social morality or that is detrimental to public interest. Article 6. For a service invention-creation, made by a person in execution of the tasks of the entity to which he belongs or made by him mainly by using the material means of the entity, the right to apply for a patent belongs to the entity. For any non service invention-creation, the right to apply for a patent belongs to the inventor or creator. After the application is approved, if it was filed by an entity under ownership by the whole people, the patent right shall be held by the entity; if it was filed by an entity under collective ownership or by an individual, the patent right shall be owned by the entity or individual. For a service invention-creation made by any staff member or worker of a foreign enterprise, or of a Chinese-foreign joint venture enterprise, located in China, the right to apply for a patent belongs to the enterprise. For any non service invention-creation, the right to apply for a patent belongs to the inventor or creator. After the application is approved, the patent right shall be owned by the enterprise or the individual that applied for it. The owner of the patent right and the holder of the patent right are referred to as "patentee". Article 7. No entity or individual shall prevent the inventor or creator from filing an application for a patent for a non service invention-creation. Article 8. For an invention-creation made in cooperation by two or more entities, or made by an entity in execution of a commission for research or designing given to it by another entity, the right to apply for a patent belongs, unless otherwise agreed upon, to the entity which made, or to the entities which jointly made, the invention-creation. After the application is approved, the patent right shall be owned or held by the entity or entities that applied for it. Article 9. Where two or more applicants file applications for patent for the identical invention-creation, the patent right shall be granted to the applicant whose application was filed first. Article 10. The right to apply for a patent and the patent right may be assigned. Any assignment, by an entity under ownership by the whole people, of the right to apply for a patent, or of the patent right, must be approved by the competent authority at the higher level. Any assignment, by a Chinese entity or individual, of the right to apply for a patent, or of the patent right, to a foreigner must be approved by the competent department concerned of the State Council. Where the right to apply for a patent or the patent right is assigned, the parties must conclude a written contract, which will come into force after it is registered with and announced by the Patent Office. Article 11. [*2] [*3] After the grant of the patent right for an invention or utility model, except as otherwise provided for in the law, no entity or individual may, without the authorization of the patentee, make, use or sell the patented product, or use the patented process and use or sell the product directly obtained by the patented process, for production or business purposes. After the grant of the patent right for a design, no entity or individual may, without the authorization of the patentee, make or sell the product, incorporating its or his patented design, for production or business purposes. After the grant of the patent right, except as otherwise provided for in the law, the patentee has the right to prevent any other person from importing, without its or his authorization, the patented product, or the product directly obtained by its or his patented process, for the uses mentioned in the preceding two paragraphs. Article 12. Any entity or individual exploiting the patent of another must, except as provided for in Article 14 of this Law, conclude with the patentee a written license contract for exploitation and pay the patentee a fee for the exploitation of the patent. The licensee has no right to authorize any entity or individual, other than that referred to in the contract for exploitation, to exploit the patent. Article 13. After the publication of the application for a patent for invention, the applicant may require the entity or individual exploiting the invention to pay an appropriate fee. Article 14. The competent departments concerned of the State Council and the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities directly under the Central Government have the power to decide, in accordance with the State plan, that any entity under ownership by the whole people that is within their system or directly under their administration and that holds the patent right to an important invention-creation is to allow designated entities to exploit that invention-creation; and the exploiting entity shall, according to the prescriptions of the State, pay a fee for exploitation to the entity holding the patent right. Any patent of a Chinese individual or entity under collective ownership, which is of great significance to the interests of the State or to the public interest and is in need of spreading and application, may, after approval by the State Council at the solicitation of its competent department concerned, be treated alike by making reference to the provisions of the preceding paragraph. Article 15. The patentee has the right to affix a patent marking and to indicate the number of the patent on the patented product or on the packing of that product. Article 16. The entity owning or holding the patent right shall award to the inventor or creator of a service invention-creation a reward and, upon exploitation of the patented invention-creation, shall award to the inventor or creator a reward based on the extent of spreading and application and the economic benefits yielded. Article 17. The inventor or creator has the right to be named as such in the patent document. Article 18. Where any foreigner, foreign enterprise or other foreign organization having no habitual residence or business office in China files an application for a patent in China, the application shall be treated under this Law in accordance with any agreement concluded between the country to which the applicant belongs and China, or in accordance with any international treaty to which both countries are party, or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity. Article 19. Where any foreigner, foreign enterprise or other foreign organization having no habitual residence or business office in China applies for a patent, or has other patent matters to attend to, in China, he or it shall appoint a patent agency designated by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to act as his or its agent. Where any Chinese entity or individual applies for a patent or has other patent matters to attend to in the country, it or he may appoint a patent agency to act as its or his agent. Article 20. Where any Chinese entity or individual intends to file an application in a foreign country for a patent for invention-creation made in the country, it or he shall file first an application for patent with the Patent Office and, with the sanction of the competent department concerned of the State Council, shall appoint a patent agency designated by the State Council to act as its or his agent. Article 21. Until the publication or announcement of the application for a patent, staff members of the Patent Office and persons involved have the duty to keep its content secret. Chapter II REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANT OF PATENT RIGHT Article 22. Any invention or utility model for which patent right may be granted must possess novelty, inventiveness and practical applicability. Novelty means that, before the date of filing, no identical invention or utility model has been publicly disclosed in publications in the country or abroad or has been publicly used or made known to the public by any other means in the country, nor has any other person filed previously with the Patent Office an application which described the identical invention or utility model and was published after the said date of filing. Inventiveness means that, as compared with the technology existing before the date of filing the invention has prominent substantive features and represents a notable progress and that the utility model has substantive features and represents progress. Practical applicability means that the invention or utility model can be made or used and can produce effective results. Article 23. Any design for which patent right may be granted must not be identical with or similar to any design which, before the date of filing, has been publicly disclosed in publications in the country or abroad or has been publicly used in the country. Article 24. An invention-creation for which a patent is applied for does not lose its novelty where, within six months before the date of filing, one of the following events occurred: (1) where it was first exhibited at an international exhibition sponsored or recognized by the Chinese Government; (2) where it was first made public at a prescribed academic or technological meeting; (3) where it was disclosed by any person without the consent of the applicant. Article 25. [*4] For any of the following, no patent right shall be granted: (1) scientific discoveries; (2) rules and methods for mental activities; (3) methods for the diagnosis or for the treatment of diseases; (4) animal and plant varieties; (5) substances obtained by means of nuclear transformation. For processes used in producing products referred to in items (4) of the preceding paragraph, patent right may be granted in accordance with the provisions of this Law. Chapter III APPLICATION FOR PATENT Article 26. Where an application for a patent for invention or utility model is filed, a request, a description and its abstract, and claims shall be submitted. The request shall state the title of the invention or utility model, the name of the inventor or creator, the name and the address of the applicant and other related matters. The description shall set forth the invention or utility model in a manner sufficiently clear and complete so as to enable a person skilled in the relevant field of technology to carry it out; where necessary, drawings are required. The abstract shall state briefly the main technical points of the invention or utility model. The claims shall be supported by the description and shall state the extent of the patent protection asked for. Article 27. Where an application for a patent for design is filed, a request, drawings or photographs of the design shall be submitted, and the product incorporating the design and the class to which that product belongs shall be indicated. Article 28. The date on which the Patent Office receives the application shall be the date of filing. If the application is sent by mail, the date of mailing indicated by the postmark shall be the date of filing. Article 29. [*5] Where, within twelve months from the date on which any applicant first filed in a foreign country an application for a patent for invention or utility model, or within six months from the date on which any applicant first filed in a foreign country an application for a patent for design, he or it files in China an application for a patent for the same subject matter, he or it may, in accordance with any agreement concluded between the said foreign country and China, or in accordance with any international treaty to which both countries are party, or on the basis of the principle of mutual recognition of the right of priority, enjoy a right of priority. Where, within twelve months from the date on which any applicant first filed in China an application for a patent for invention or utility model, he or it files with the Patent Office an application for a patent for the same subject matter, he or it may enjoy a right of priority. Article 30. [*6] Any applicant who claims the right of priority shall make a written declaration when the application is filed, and submit, within three months, a copy of the patent application document which was first filed; if the applicant fails to make the written declaration or to meet the time limit for submitting the patent application document, the claim to the right of priority shall be deemed not to have been made. Article 31. An application for a patent for invention or utility model shall be limited to one invention or utility model. Two or more inventions or utility models belonging to a single general inventive concept may be filed as one application. An application for a patent for design shall be limited to one design incorporated in one product. Two or more designs which are incorporated in products belonging to the same class and are sold or used in sets may be filed as one application. Article 32. An applicant may withdraw his or its application for a patent at any time before the patent right is granted. Article 33. [*7] An applicant may amend his or its application for a patent, but the amendment to the application for a patent for invention or utility model may not go beyond the scope of the disclosure contained in the initial description and claims, and the amendment to the application for a patent for design may not go beyond the scope of the disclosure as shown in the initial drawings or photographs. Chapter IV EXAMINATION AND APPROVAL OF APPLICATION FOR PATENT Article 34. [*8] Where, after receiving an application for a patent for invention, the Patent Office, upon preliminary examination, finds the application to be in conformity with the requirements of this Law, it shall publish the application promptly after the expiration of eighteen months from the date of filing. Upon the request of the applicant, the Patent Office publishes the application earlier. Article 35. Upon the request of the applicant for a patent for invention, made at any time within three years from the date of filing, the Patent Office will proceed to examine the application as to its substance. If, without any justified reason, the applicant fails to meet the time limit for requesting examination as to substance, the application shall be deemed to have been withdrawn. The Patent Office may, on its own initiative, proceed to examine any application for a patent for invention as to its substance when it deems it necessary. Article 36. When the applicant for a patent for invention requests examination as to substance, he or it shall furnish pre-filing date reference materials concerning the invention. The applicant for a patent for invention who has filed in a foreign country an application for a patent for the same invention shall, at the time of requesting examination as to substance, furnish documents concerning any search made for the purpose of examining that application, or concerning the results of any examination made, in that country. If, without any justified reason, the said documents are not furnished, the application shall be deemed to have been withdrawn. Article 37. Where the Patent Office, after it has made the examination as to substance of the application for a patent for invention, finds that the application is not in conformity with the provisions of this Law, it shall notify the applicant and request him or it to submit, within a specified time limit, his or its observations or to amend the application. If, without any justified reason, the time limit for making response is not met, the application shall be deemed to have been withdrawn. Article 38. Where, after the applicant has made the observations or amendments, the Patent Office finds that the application for a patent for invention is still not in conformity with the provisions of this Law, the application shall be rejected. Article 39. [*9] Where it is found after examination as to substance that there is no cause for rejection of the application for a patent for invention, the Patent Office shall make a decision to grant the patent right for invention, issue the certificate of patent for invention, and register and announce it. Article 40. [*10] Where it is found after preliminary examination that there is no cause for rejection of the application for a patent for utility model or design, the Patent Office shall make a decision to grant the patent right for utility model or the patent right for design, issue the relevant patent certificate, and register and announce it. Article 41. [*11] Where, within six months from the date of the announcement of the grant of the patent right by the Patent Office, any entity or individual considers that the grant of the said patent right is not in conformity with the relevant provisions of this Law, it or he may request the Patent Office to revoke the patent right. Article 42. [*12] The Patent Office shall examine the request for revocation of the patent right, make a decision revoking or upholding the patent right, and notify the person who made the request and the patentee. The decision revoking the patent right shall be registered and announced by the Patent Office. Article 43. [*13] The Patent Office shall set up a Patent Reexamination Board. Where any party is not satisfied with the decision of the Patent Office rejecting the application, or the decision of the Patent Office revoking or upholding the patent right, such party may, within three months from the date of receipt of the notification, request the Patent Reexamination Board to make a reexamination. The Patent Reexamination Board shall, after reexamination, make a decision and notify the applicant, the patentee or the person who made the request for revocation of the patent right. Where the applicant for a patent for invention, the patentee of an invention or the person who made the request for revocation of the patent right for invention is not satisfied with the decision of the Patent Reexamination Board, he or it may, within three months from the date of receipt of the notification, institute legal proceedings in the people's court. The decision of the Patent Reexamination Board in respect of any request, made by the applicant, the patentee or the person who made the request for revocation of the patent right, for reexamination concerning a utility model or design is final. Article 44. [*14] Any patent right which has been revoked shall be deemed to be nonexistent from the beginning. Chapter V DURATION, CESSATION AND INVALIDATION OF PATENT RIGHT Article 45. [*15] The duration of patent right for inventions shall be twenty years, the duration of patent right for utility models and patent right for designs shall be ten years, counted from the date of filing. Article 46. The patentee shall pay an annual fee beginning with the year in which the patent right was granted. Article 47. In any of the following cases, the patent right shall cease before the expiration of its duration: (1) where an annual fee is not paid as prescribed; (2) where the patentee abandons his or its patent right by a written declaration. Any cessation of the patent right shall be registered and announced by the Patent Office. Article 48. [*16] Where, after the expiration of six months from the date of the announcement of the grant of the patent right by the Patent Office, any entity or individual considers that the grant of the said patent right is not in conformity with the relevant provisions of this Law, it or he may request the Patent Reexamination Board to declare the patent right invalid. Article 49. The Patent Reexamination Board shall examine the request for invalidation of the patent right, make a decision and notify the person who made the request and the patentee. The decision declaring the patent right invalid shall be registered and announced by the Patent Office. Where any party is not satisfied with the decision of the Patent Reexamination Board declaring the patent right for invention invalid or upholding the patent right for invention, such party may, within three months from receipt of the notification of the decision, institute legal proceedings in the people's court. The decision of the Patent Reexamination Board in respect of a request to declare invalid the patent right for utility model or design is final. Article 50. [*17] Any patent right which has been declared invalid shall be deemed to be nonexistent from the beginning. The decision of invalidation shall have no retroactive effect on any judgement or order on patent infringement which has been pronounced and enforced by the people's court, on any decision concerning the handling of patent infringement which has been made and enforced by the administrative authority for patent affairs, and on any contract of patent license and of assignment of patent right which have been performed, prior to the decision of invalidation; however, the damages caused to other persons in bad faith on the part of the patentee shall be compensated. If, pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, no repayment, by the patentee or the assignor of the patent right to the licensee or the assignee of the patent right, of the fee for the exploitation of the patent or the price for the assignment of the patent right is obviously contrary to the principle of equity, the patentee or the assignor of the patent right shall repay the whole or part of the fee for the exploitation of the patent or the price for the assignment of the patent right to the licensee or the assignee of the patent right. The provisions of the second and third paragraph of this Article shall apply to the patent right which has been revoked. Chapter VI COMPULSORY LICENSE FOR EXPLOITATION OF THE PATENT Article 51. [*18] Where any entity which is qualified to exploit the invention or utility model has made requests for authorization from the patentee of an invention or utility model to exploit its or his patent on reasonable terms and such efforts have not been successful within a reasonable period of time, the Patent Office may, upon the application of that entity, grant a compulsory license to exploit the patent for invention or utility model. Article 52. [*19] Where a national emergency or any extraordinary state of affairs occurs, or where the public interest so requires, the Patent Office may grant a compulsory license to exploit the patent for invention or utility model. Article 53. Where the invention or utility model for which the patent right was granted is technically more advanced than another invention or utility model for which a patent right has been granted earlier and the exploitation of the later invention or utility model depends on the exploitation of the earlier invention or utility model, the Patent Office may, upon the request of the later patentee, grant a compulsory license to exploit the earlier invention or utility model. Where, according to the preceding paragraph, a compulsory license is granted, the Patent Office may, upon the request of the earlier patentee, also grant a compulsory license to exploit the later invention or utility model. Article 54. The entity or individual requesting, in accordance with the provisions of this Law, a compulsory license for exploitation shall furnish proof that it or he has not been able to conclude with the patentee a license contract for exploitation on reasonable terms. Article 55. The decision made by the Patent Office granting a compulsory license for exploitation shall be registered and announced. Article 56. Any entity or individual that is granted a compulsory license for exploitation shall not have an exclusive right to exploit and shall not have the right to authorize exploitation by any others. Article 57. The entity or individual that is granted a compulsory license for exploitation shall pay to the patentee a reasonable exploitation fee, the amount of which shall be fixed by both parties in consultations. Where the parties fail to reach an agreement, the Patent Office shall adjudicate. Article 58. Where the patentee is not satisfied with the decision of the Patent Office granting a compulsory license for exploitation or with the adjudication regarding the exploitation fee payable for exploitation, he or it may, within three months from the receipt of the notification, institute legal proceedings in the people's court. Chapter VII PROTECTION OF PATENT RIGHT Article 59. The extent of protection of the patent right for invention or utility model shall be determined by the terms of the claims. The description and the appended drawings may be used to interpret the claims. The extent of protection of the patent right for design shall be determined by the product incorporating the patented design as shown in the drawings or photographs. Article 60. For any exploitation of the patent, without the authorization of the patentee, constituting an infringing act, the patentee or any interested party may request the administrative authority for patent affairs to handle the matter or may directly institute legal proceedings in the people's court. The administrative authority for patent affairs handling the matter shall have the power to order the infringer to stop the infringing act and to compensate for the damage. Any party dissatisfied may, within three months from the receipt of the notification, institute legal proceedings in the people's court. If such proceedings are not instituted within the time limit and if the order is not complied with, the administrative authority for patent affairs may approach the people's court for compulsory execution. When any infringement dispute arises, if the patent for invention is a process for the manufacture of a new product, any entity or individual manufacturing the identical product shall furnish proof of the process used in the manufacture of its or his product. [*20] Article 61. Prescription for instituting legal proceedings concerning the infringement of patent right is two years counted from the date on which the patentee or any interested party obtains or should have obtained knowledge of the infringing act. Article 62. None of the following shall be deemed an infringement of the patent right: (1) Where, after the sale of a patented product that was made by the patentee or with the authorization of the patentee, any other person uses or sells that product; (2) Where any person uses or sells a patented product not knowing that it was made and sold without the authorization of the patentee; (3) Where, before the date of filing of the application for patent, any person who has already made the identical product, used the identical process, or made necessary preparations for its making or using, continues to make or use it within the original scope only; (4) Where any foreign means of transport which temporarily passes through the territory, territorial waters or territorial airspace of China uses the patent concerned, in accordance with any agreement concluded between the country to which the foreign means of transport belongs and China, or in accordance with any international treaty to which both countries are party, or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity, for its own needs, in its devices and installations; (5) Where any person uses the patent concerned solely for the purposes of scientific research and experimentation. Article 63. Where any person passes off the patent of another person, such passing off shall be treated in accordance with Article 60 of this Law. If the circumstances are serious, any person directly responsible shall be prosecuted, for his criminal liability, by applying mutatis mutandis Article 127 of the Criminal Law. Where any person passes any unpatented product off as patented product or passes any unpatented process off as patented process, such person shall be ordered by the administrative authority for patent affairs to stop the passing off, correct it publicly, and pay a fine. [*21] Article 64. Where any person, in violation of the provisions of Article 20 of this Law, unauthorizedly files in a foreign country an application for a patent that divulges an important secret of the State, he shall be subject to disciplinary sanction by the entity to which he belongs or by the competent authority concerned at the higher level. If the circumstances are serious, he shall be prosecuted for his criminal liability according to the law. Article 65. Where any person usurps the right of an inventor or creator to apply for a patent for a non service invention-creation, or usurps any other right or interest of an inventor or creator, prescribed by this Law, he shall be subject to disciplinary sanction by the entity to which he belongs or by the competent authority at the higher level. Article 66. Where any staff member of the Patent Office, or any staff member concerned of the State, acts wrongfully out of personal considerations or commits fraudulent acts, he shall be subject to disciplinary sanction by the Patent Office or the competent authority concerned. If the circumstances are serious, he shall be prosecuted, for his criminal liability, by applying mutatis mutandis Article 188 of the Criminal Law. Chapter VIII SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS Article 67. Any application for a patent filed with, and any other proceedings before, the Patent Office shall be subject to the payment of a fee as prescribed. Article 68. The implementing Regulations of this Law shall be drawn up by the Patent Office and shall enter into force after approval by the State Council. Article 69. This Law shall enter into force on April 1, 1985. This Decision [*22] shall enter into force on January 1, 1993. The applications for patent filed before the entry into force of this Decision and the patent rights granted on the basis of the said applications shall continue to be governed by the provisions of the Patent Law before its amendment. However, the procedures provided by the amended Articles 39 to 44 and the amended Article 48 of the Patent Law concerning the approval of applications for patent, and the revocation and invalidation of the patent right shall apply to the said applications which are not announced according to the provisions of Articles 39 and 40 of the Patent Law before its amendment. (Extract from the Decision Regarding the Revision of the Patent Law of the People's Republic of China, Adopted at the 27th Session of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People's Congress on September 4, 1992) [*1] This Table of Contents was established for the convenience of the reader by the Patent Laws Research Institute of the Chinese Patent Office. The text of the Patent Law adopted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress does not contain such a table and the Articles have no titles in the Law. [*2] The texts of those articles of the Law printed in boldface are amended texts. The relevant old texts are, for the convenience of reference, printed in the footnotes on the same page. [*3] Old Article 11. After the grant of the patent right for an invention or utility model, except as provided for in Article 14 of this Law, no entity or individual may, without the authorization of the patentee, exploit the patent, that is, make, use or sell the patented product, or use the patented process, for production or business purposes. After the grant of the patent right for a design, no entity or individual may, without the authorization of the patentee, exploit the patent, that is, make or sell the product, incorporating the patented design, for production or business purposes. [*4] Old Article 25. For any of the following, no patent right shall be granted: (1) scientific discoveries; (2) rules and methods for mental activities; (3) methods for the diagnosis or for the treatment of diseases; (4) food, beverages and flavorings; (5) pharmaceutical products and substances obtained by means of a chemical process; (6) animal and plant varieties; (7) substances obtained by means of nuclear transformation. For processes used in producing products referred to in items (4) to (6) of the preceding paragraph, patent right may be granted in accordance with the provisions of this Law. [*5] Old Article 29. Where any foreign applicant files an application in China within twelve months from the date on which he or it first filed in a foreign country an application for a patent for the identical invention or utility model, or within six months from the date on which he or it first filed in a foreign country an application for a patent for the identical design, he or it may, in accordance with any agreement concluded between the country to which he or it belongs and China, or in accordance with any international treaty to which both countries are party, or on the basis of the principle of mutual recognition of the right of priority, enjoy a right of priority, that is, the date on which the application was first filed in the foreign country shall be regarded as the date of filing. Where the applicant claims a right of priority and where one of the events listed in Article 24 of this Law occurred, the period of the right of priority shall be counted from the date on which the event occurred. [*6] Old Article 30. Any applicant who claims the right of priority shall make a written declaration when the application is filed, indicating the date of filing of the earlier application in the foreign country and the country in which that application was filed, and submit, within three months, a copy of that application document, certified by the competent authority of that country; if the applicant fails to make the written declaration or to meet the time limit for submitting the document, the claim to the right of priority shall be deemed not to have been made. [*7] Old Article 33. An applicant may amend his or its application for a patent, but may not go beyond the scope of the disclosure contained in the initial description. [*8] Old Article 34. Where, after receiving an application for a patent for invention, the Patent Office, upon preliminary examination, finds the application to be in conformity with the requirements of this Law, it shall publish the application within 18 months from the date of filing. Upon the request of the applicant, the Patent Office publishes the application earlier. [*9] Old Article 39. Where it is found after examination as to substance that there is no cause for rejection of the application for a patent for invention, the Patent Office shall make a decision, announce it and notify the applicant. [*10] Old Article 40. Where, after receiving the application for a patent for utility model or design, the Patent Office finds upon preliminary examination that the application is in conformity with the requirements of this Law, it shall not proceed to examine it as to substance but shall immediately make an announcement and notify the applicant. [*11] Old Article 41. Within three months from the date of the announcement of the application for a patent, any person may, in accordance with the provisions of this Law, file with the Patent Office an opposition to that application. The Patent Office shall send a copy of the opposition to the applicant, to which the applicant shall respond in writing within three months from the date of its receipt; if, without any justified reason, the time limit for making the written response is not met, the application shall be deemed to have been withdrawn. [*12] Old Article 42. Where, after examination, the Patent Office finds that the opposition is justified, it shall make a decision to reject the application and notify the opponent and the applicant. [*13] Old Article 43. The Patent Office shall set up a Patent Reexamination Board. Where the applicant is not satisfied with the decision of the Patent Office rejecting the application, he or it may, within three months from the date of receipt of the notification, request the Patent Reexamination Board to make a reexamination. The Patent Reexamination Board shall, after reexamination, make a decision and notify the applicant. Where the applicant for a patent for invention is not satisfied with the decision of the Patent Reexamination Board rejecting the request for reexamination, he or it may within three months from the date of receipt of the notification, institute legal proceedings in the people's court. The decision of the Patent Reexamination Board in respect of any request by the applicant for reexamination concerning a utility model or design is final. [*14] Old Article 44. Where no opposition to the application for a patent is filed or where, after its examination, the opposition is found unjustified, the Patent Office shall make a decision to grant the patent right, issue the patent certificate, and register and announce the relevant matters. [*15] Old Article 45. The duration of patent right for inventions shall be 15 years counted from the date of filing. The duration of patent right for utility models or designs shall be five years counted from the date of filing. Before the expiration of the said term, the patentee may apply for a renewal for three years. Where the patentee enjoys a right of priority, the duration of patent right shall be counted from the date on which the application was filed in China. [*16] Old Article 48. Where, after the grant of the patent right, any entity or individual considers that the grant of the said patent right is not in conformity with the provisions of this Law, it or he may request the Patent Reexamination Board to declare the patent right invalid. [*17] Old Article 50. Any patent right which has been declared invalid shall be deemed to be nonexistent from the beginning. [*18] Old Article 51. The patentee himself or itself has the obligation to make the patented product, or to use the patented process, in China, or otherwise to authorize other persons to make the patented product, or to use the patented process, in China. [*19] Old Article 52. Where the patentee of an invention or utility model fails, without any justified reason, by the expiration of three years from the date of the grant of the patent right, to fulfil the obligation set forth in Article 51, the Patent Office may, upon the request of an entity which is qualified to exploit the invention or utility model, grant a compulsory license to exploit the patent. [*20] The old second paragraph of Article 60: When any infringement dispute arises, if the patent for invention is a process for the manufacture of a product, any entity or individual manufacturing the identical product shall furnish proof of the process used in the manufacture of its or his product. [*21] This is a new paragraph added to Article 63. [*22] This Decision relates to the amendments of Articles 11, 25, 29, 30, 33, 34, 39-45, 48, 50-52, 60 and 63 of the Patent Law.

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